FLAME University


Learning from some of the best minds in education and in the industry
Prof. Aparna Shankar
Professor - Psychology
Email: aparna.shankar@flame.edu.in
PhD in Health Psychology from University of Leeds, UK; M.Sc. in Applied Statistics with Medical Applications from Birkbeck, University of London, UK; M.Sc. in Psychological Approaches to Health from University of Leeds, UK; M.A. - Part I in Psychology from University of Pune, India; B.A. in Psychology, with minors in Sociology & Applied Statistics from Fergusson College, University of Pune, India.

Aparna Shankar is a Professor in Psychology at FLAME University. Aparna holds a doctorate degree in health psychology from the University of Leeds. Her doctoral thesis examined psychosocial predictors of maintenance of health behaviours. She also holds MSc in Applied Statistics with Medical Applications from Birkbeck, University of London.

Aparna works on health and well-being in older adults, with a particular emphasis on the role of social relationships, using data from ageing cohorts. Her other research interests include the patterning of health behaviours, the role of the environment on health, and inequalities in access to care.



  • Bapat, D.A., Gandhi, P. & Shankar, A. (2022) Psychosocial perspectives on dementia care in the Indian context. In S. I. Rajan (Ed). Handbook of Aging, Health and Public Policy. Springer Nature. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-981-16-1914-4_35-1

  • Shankar, A. (2019) Loneliness and health. In D. Dunn (Ed.) Oxford Bibliographies – Psychology. doi: 10.1093/OBO/9780199828340-0253 

  • Shankar, A. (2018). Social isolation.In M. Bornstein, M.E. Arterberry, K.L. Fingerman, & J.E. Lansford (Eds.) The SAGE Encyclopedia of Lifespan Human Development. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publishers. 

  • Shankar, A. (2017) Loneliness and health. In O. Braddick (Ed), The Oxford Research Encylopedia of Psychology. doi: 10.1093/acrefore/9780190236557.013.122



  • Verity, L., Yang, K., Nowland, R., Shankar, A., Turnbull, M. & Qualter, P. (in press). Loneliness from the Adolescent Perspective: A Qualitative Analysis of Conversations about Loneliness between Adolescents and Childline Counsellors. Journal of Adolescent Research

  • Shankar, A. & Kidd, T. (2022) Loneliness in older Indian dyads. International Journal of Environmental Research & Public Health, 9(9), 5302; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph19095302


  • Pathak, P., Tripathi, A. & Shankar, A. (2021) Smart streets and smart city: A case study of Pune’s ITI Road. Theoretical and Empirical Researches in Urban Management, 16(4), 20-33. http://um.ase.ro/no164/2.pdf 

  • Bapat, D. A. & Shankar, A. (2021) A review of caregiver distress in epilepsy in India: current issues and future directions for research. Epilepsy & Behaviour doi: 10.1016/j.yebeh.2021.107787.


  • Owen C. G., Limb E. S., Nightingale, C. M., Rudnicka, A. R., Ram, B., Shankar, A., Cummins, S., Lewis, D., Clary, C., Cooper, A. R., Page, A. S., Procter, D., Ellaway, A., Giles-Corti, B., Whincup, P. H. & Cook, D. G. (2020) Active design of built environments for increasing levels of physical activity in adults: the ENABLE London natural experiment study. Public Health Research, 8(12)https://doi.org/10.3310/phr08120

  • Ram, B., Limb, E., Shankar, A., Nightingale, C.M., Rudnicka, A.R., Cummins, S., Clary, C., Lewis, D., Cooper, A.R., Page, A.S., Ellaway, A., Giles-Corti, B., Whincup, P.H., Cook, D.G., Owen, C.G. (2020) Evaluating the effect of change in the built environment on mental health and subjective wellbeing: a natural experiment. Journal of Epidemiology & Community Health, 74(8), 631-638 doi: 10.1136/jech-2019-213591.

  • Limb, E., Proctor, D., Cooper, A., Nightingale, C., Ram, B., Shankar, A., Clary, C., Lewis, D., Cummins, S., Ellaway, A., Gilles-Corti, B., Whincup, P. Rudnicka, A., Cook, D & Owen, C. (2020). The effect of moving to East Village, the former London 2012 Olympic and Paralympic Games Athletes’ Village, on mode of travel (ENABLE London Study, a natural experiment). International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity, 17, 15 https://doi.org/10.1186/s12966-020-0916-0 

  • Shankar, A. (2020) Loneliness and sleep in older adults. Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology, 55, 269–272https://doi.org/10.1007/s00127-019-01805-8 


  • Nightingale CM, Limb, E., Ram B, Shankar, A., Clary, C., Lewis, D., Cummins, S., Proctor, D., Cooper, A., Page, A., Ellaway, A., Giles-Corti, B., Whincup, P., Rudnicka AR, Cook, D. & Owen, C. (2019) The effect of moving to East Village, the former London 2012 Olympic and Paralympic Games Athletes' Village, on physical activity and adiposity (ENABLE London): a cohort study. Lancet Public Health, 4, e421-30 https://doi.org/10.1016/S2468-2667(19)30133-1


  • Nightingale CM, Rudnicka AR, Ram B, Shankar, A., Limb, E., Proctor, D., Cooper, A., Page, A., Ellaway, A., Giles-Corti, B., Clary, C., Lewis, D., Cummins, S., Whincup, P., Cook, D. & Owen, C. (2018) Housing, neighbourhood and sociodemographic associations with adult levels of physical activity and adiposity: baseline findings from the ENABLE London study. BMJ Open, 8:e021257. doi: 10.1136/bmjopen-2017-021257  


  • Ram, B., Shankar, A., Nightingale, C. M., Giles-Corti, B., Ellaway, A., Cooper, A., Page, A., Cummins, S., Lewis, D., Whincup, P., Cook, D., Rudnicka, A. R., & Owen, C. (2017). Comparisons of depression, anxiety, well-being, and perceptions of the built environment amongst adults seeking social, intermediate and market-rent accommodation in the former London Olympic Athletes’ Village. Health & Place¸ 48, 31-39. doi: 10.1016/j.healthplace.2017.09.001.

  • Shankar, A. & Hinds, P. (2017).  Perceived discrimination: Associations with physical and cognitive function in older adults. Health Psychology, 36(12), 1126-1134 doi:10.1037/hea0000522

  • Shankar, A., McMunn, A., Demakakos, P., Hamer, M. & Steptoe, A. (2017). Social isolation and loneliness: Prospective associations with functional status in older adults. Health Psychology, 36(2), 179-187. doi: 10.1037/hea0000437

  •  Aggio, D., Wallace, K., Boreham, N., Shankar, A., Steptoe, A., & Hamer, M. (2017) Objectively measured daily physical activity and postural changes as related to positive and negative affect using ambulatory monitoring assessments. Psychosomatic Medicine, 79(7), 792-797, doi: 10.1097/PSY.0000000000000485

  • Hamer, M., Aggio, D., Knock, G., Kipps, C., Shankar, A., & Smith, L. (2017). Effect of major school playground reconstruction on physical activity and sedentary behaviour: Camden active spaces. BMC Public Health, 17(1), 552. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12889-017-4483-5


  •  Hamer, M., Yates, T., Sherar, L.B., Clemes, S.A., & Shankar, A. (2016) Association of after school sedentary behaviour in adolescence with mental wellbeing in adulthood. Preventive Medicine, 87, 6-10. doi: 10.1016/j.ypmed.2016.02.021.

  •  Rogers, N., Demakakos, P., Taylor, M.S., Steptoe, A., Hamer, M. & Shankar, A. (2016) Volunteering is associated with increased survival in able-bodied participants of the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing. Journal of Epidemiology & Community Health, 70(6), 583-8. doi:10.1136/jech-2015-206305


  • Rafnsson, S.B., Shankar, A.,  & Steptoe, A. (2015) Informal caregiving transitions, subjective well-being and depressed mood: Findings from the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing. Ageing & Mental Health, 21(1),104-112,doi: 10.1080/13607863.2015.1088510

  • Toma, A., Hamer, M. & Shankar, A. (2015). Associations between neighborhood perceptions and mental well-being among older adults. Health & Place, 34, 46-53.DOI:10.1016/j.healthplace.2015.03.014

  • White, J., Zaninotto, P., Walters, K., Kivimaki, M., Demakakos, P., Shankar, A., Kumari, M., Gallacher, J., & Batty, G. D. (2015). Severity of depressive symptoms as a predictor of mortality: The English Longitudinal Study of Ageing. Psychological Medicine, 45(13), 2771-9.doi: 10.1017/S0033291715000732

  • Rafnsson, S. B., Shankar, A., & Steptoe, A. (2015). The Longitudinal Influence of Social Network Characteristics on Subjective Well-being of Older Adults: Findings from the ELSA study. Journal of Aging and Health. 27(5), 919-34. doi: 10.1177/0898264315572111 

  • Shahab, L., Gilchrist, G., Hagger-Johnson, G. J., Shankar, A., West, E. & West, R. (2015). Reciprocal associations between smoking cessation and depression in older smokers: findings from the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing (ELSA). British Journal of Psychiatry, 207(3)243–249. doi: 10.1192/bjp.bp.114.153494


  • Shankar, A., Rafnsson, S. B., & Steptoe, A. (2014) Longitudinal associations between social connections and subjective wellbeing in the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing. Psychology & Health. 30(6), 686-98. doi:10.1080/08870446.2014.97982

  • Bell, J., Hamer, M. & Shankar, A. (2014). Gender-specific associations of objective and perceived neighborhood characteristics with body mass index and waist circumference among older adults in the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing. American Journal of Public Health, 104(7), 1279-1286. doi: 10.2105/AJPH.2014.3019

  • Kumari, M., Holmes, M.V., Dale, C. E., Hubacek, J, Palmer, T. M., Pikhart, H., Peasey, A., Britton, A., Horvat, P., Kubinova, R., Malyutinah, S., Pajak, A., Tamosiunas, A., Shankar, A., Singh-Manoux, A., Voevoda, M., Kivimaki, M., Hingorani, A. D., Marmot M. G., Casas, J. P., &  Bobak, M. (2014). Alcohol consumption and cognitive performance: A Mendelian randomisation study. Addiction, 109(9), 1462-71. doi:10.111/add.12568.


  • Steptoe, A., Shankar, A., Demakkakos, P. & Wardle, J. (2013). Social isolation, loneliness, and all-cause mortality in older men and women. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 10(15), 5797-5801. https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1219686110

  • Shankar, A., Hamer, M., Steptoe, A. & McMunn, A. (2013).Social isolation and loneliness: Relationships with cognitive function during 4 years of follow-up in the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing. Psychosomatic Medicine, 72(2), 161-170. doi: 10.1097/PSY.0b013e31827f09cd.


  • Meissel, S., Shankar, A., Kivimäki, M., & Wardle, J. (2012). Consent to DNA collection in epidemiological studies: Findings from the Whitehall II cohort and the English Longitudinal Study in Ageing (ELSA). Genetics in Medicine, 14(2), 201-206. doi: 10.1038/gim.0b013e31822e5778.


  • Shankar, A., McMunn, A., Banks, J., & Steptoe, A. (2011). Loneliness, social isolation and behavioral, and biological health indicators in older adults. Health Psychology, 30(4), 377-385.  doi: 10.1037/a0022826.


  • Shankar, A., McMunn, A., & Steptoe, A. (2010). Multiple health behaviors in older adults: Relationships with socioeconomic status. American Journal of Preventive Medicine 38(1), 39-46. doi: 10.1016/j.amepre.2009.08.026.


  • Berger, R., Shankar, A., Fruhwald, F., Fahrleitner-Pammer, A., Freemantle, N., Tavazzi, L., Cleland, J.G., & Pacher, R. (2009). Relationships between cardiac resynchronization therapy and N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide in patients with heart failure and markers of cardiac dyssynchrony: an analysis from the Cardiac Resynchronization in Heart Failure (CARE-HF) study. European Heart Journal, 30(17), 2109-16. doi: 10.1093/eurheartj/ehp210. 

  • Calvert, M., Shankar, A., McManus, R.J., Lester, H., & Freemantle, N. (2009). Effect of the quality and outcomes framework on diabetes care in the United Kingdom: retrospective cohort study. British Medical Journal (Clinical Research Ed.) 338, b1870.  https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj.b1870 

  • Calvert, M.J., Shankar, A., McManus, R.J., Ryan, R., & Freemantle, N. (2009). Evaluation of the management of heart failure in primary care. Family Practice 26(2), 145-153. https://doi.org/10.1093/fampra/cmn105

  • Freemantle, N., Wood, N., Griffin, C., Gill, P., Calvert, M., Shankar, A., Chambers, J., & MacArthur, C. (2009). What factors predict differences in infant and perinatal mortality in Primary Care Trusts in England? A prognostic model. British Medical Journal (Clinical Research Ed.), 339, b2892. https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj.b2892 

  • Gervais,R., Leclercq,C., Shankar, A., Jacobs,S., Eiskjær,H., Johannessen,A., Freemantle,N., Cleland,J.G., Tavazzi,L., Daubert,C.; on behalf of the CARE-HF investigators. (2009). Surface electrocardiogram to predict outcome in candidates for cardiac resynchronization therapy: a sub-analysis of the CARE-HF trial. European Journal of Heart Failure 11(7), 699-705. doi: 10.1093/eurjhf/hfp074. 

  • Ghio, S., Freemantle, N., Scelsi, L., Serio, A., Magrini, G., Pasotti, M., Shankar, A., Cleland, J.G., & Tavazzi, L. (2009). Long-term left ventricular reverse remodelling with cardiac resynchronization therapy: results from the CARE-HF trial. European Journal of Heart Failure 11(5), 480-488. doi: 10.1093/eurjhf/hfp034.

  • Gill, P.S., Shankar, A., Quirke, T., & Freemantle, N. (2009). Access to interpreting services in England: secondary analysis of national data. BMC Public Health 9, 12. https://doi.org/10.1186/1471-2458-9-12


  • Calvert, M., Shankar, A., McManus, R., & Freemantle, N. (2008). Achieving glycaemic control: current and future management opportunities. Diabetes and Primary Care May-Jun. 

  • Cleland, J., Freemantle, N., Ghio, S., Fruhwald, F., Shankar, A., Marijanowski, M., Verboven,Y., & Tavazzi, L. (2008). Predicting the long-term effects of cardiac resynchronization therapy on mortality from baseline variables and the early response a report from the CARE-HF (Cardiac Resynchronization in Heart Failure) Trial. Journal of the American College of Cardiology 52(6), 438-445. doi: 10.1016/j.jacc.2008.04.036.


  • Lester, H., Freemantle, N., Wilson, S., Sorohan, H., England, E., Griffin, C., & Shankar, A. (2007). Cluster randomised controlled trial of the effectiveness of primary care mental health workers. British Journal of General Practice 57(536), 196-203.

  • Shankar, A., Conner, M., & Bodansky, H. J. (2007). Can the theory of planned behaviour predict maintenance of a frequently repeated behaviour? Psychology, Health and Medicine, 12(2), 213-224. doi: 10.1080/09540120500521327.


  • Matthews, K., Demakakos, P., Nazroo, J. & Shankar, A. (2014). The evolution of lifestyles in older age in England. In J. Banks, J. Nazroo and A. Steptoe (Eds)  The dynamics of ageing: Evidence from the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing 2002-2012 (pp. 51 – 93). London: The Institute for Fiscal Studies.

  • de Oliveira, C., Shankar, A., Kumari, M., Nunn, S., & Steptoe, A (2010). Health risk and health protective biological measures in later life. In J. Banks, C. Lessof, J. Nazroo, N. Rogers, M. Stafford & A. Steptoe (Eds.), Financial circumstances, health and well-being of the older population in England: The 2008 England Longitudinal Study of Ageing (Wave 4). London: Institute of Fiscal Studies.