Connell’s term hegemonic masculinity is rejected for three principal reasons: the concept lacks precision; the description does not fit what is in fact ‘hegemonic’ thus decentring the problem away from ordinary men; and it does not provide a means through which to theorise how the ideal undergoes change. A new typology of masculinities that draws on Freud’s observation of a repudiation of femininity in men and women is proposed in its place. There are three archetypes: RAMS (reactive / aggravated masculinities); ARMS (avoidant / restrictive masculinities) and REMS (reflective / experimental masculinities). RAMS and REMS are the opposing types that calibrate the masculine ideal on the ARMS continuum. The notion of a ‘calibrated masculinity’ replaces Connell’s concept. Bearing the symptoms of a psychological disorder, what is called the masculine disorder is essential for capitalist reproduction and expansion.
Prof. Ciara Cremin,
University of Auckland
Speaker bio: Ciara Cremin lectures in sociology and leads the Gender Studies programme at the University of Auckland, New Zealand. She has published a number of books, including Man-Made Woman (2017), that reflects on her early experiences of presenting publicly as a woman. Her most recent, The Future is Feminine: Capitalism and the Masculine Disorder, is published with Bloomsbury Academic (2021).